Evidence for a catecholaminergic projection to area X in the zebra finch

J Comp Neurol. 1981 Feb 20;196(2):347-54. doi: 10.1002/cne.901960212.


In the zebra finch (Poephila guttata), horseradish peroxidase injected into or near Area X of the lobus parolfactorius (LPO) is transported to cell bodies in ipsilateral hyperstriatum ventrale pars caudale (HVc), area ventralis of Tsai (AVT), and nucleus tegmenti pedunculo-pontinus, pars compacta (TPc). Area X, LPO, and paleostriatum augmentatum (PA) all contain a dense network of catacholamine-containing axons and nerve terminals, as determined in histofluorescence studies. Cell bodies in AVT and TPc contain catacholamines; lesions of TPc greatly reduce or abolish catacholamine fluorescence in PA, and a lesion of AVT eliminates histofluorescence in LPO, icluding Area X. The anatomical location and catecholaminergic projection from AVT suggest that LPO-Area X may be the avian homolog of the mammalian nucleus accumbens, olfactory tubercle, and/or rostromedial caudate.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Birds / anatomy & histology*
  • Brain / anatomy & histology*
  • Catecholamines / metabolism*
  • Cholinergic Fibers / anatomy & histology*
  • Corpus Striatum / anatomy & histology
  • Female
  • Hypoglossal Nerve / anatomy & histology
  • Limbic System / anatomy & histology
  • Male
  • Mesencephalon / anatomy & histology
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Neural Pathways / anatomy & histology
  • Telencephalon / anatomy & histology
  • Vocalization, Animal / physiology*


  • Catecholamines