A new animal model for the study of genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis has been developed. Female mice were successfully infected after intravaginal inoculation with the C. trachomatis agent of mouse pneumonitis. Evidence for infection was obtained by detection of chlamydial inclusions in smears of cervical scrapings treated with Giemsa stain. Chlamydiae were observed in sections of cervical tissues examined by light and electron microscopy as well as by immunofluorescence microscopy. An antibody response to the agent of mouse pneumonitis was also demonstrated in sera after infection. The mouse model of genital infection with the agent of mouse pneumonitis offers an opportunity to investigate many questions related to pathogenesis and immunity associated with C. trachomatis genital infections.