Simultaneous capillary and luminal microperfusion studies in the proximal convoluted tubule of the rat were performed to examine the transepithelial secretory flux of [14C]oxalate. Increases in the concentration of oxalate in the capillary solution from 0.096 to 4.3 mM resulted in progressively higher rates of oxalate secretion into the lumen. Further increases in the capillary concentration of oxalate indicated a tendency toward a plateau. The inclusion of para-chloromercuribenzoate, sodium cyanide, indanyloxyacetic acid, furosemide, or para-aminohippurate in the capillary solution significantly lowered the secretory flux of oxalate. the addition of probenecid in a concentration of 10(-4) M inhibited oxalate secretion when the oxalate concentration in the capillary solution ranged between 1.1 and 4.3 mM, but did not affect oxalate secretion at higher capillary concentrations of oxalate. These results indicate that oxalate secretion in the rat proximal tubule is an active carrier-mediated process. When considered in conjunction with prior studies, the present investigations suggest the possibility that more than one oxalate secretory system exists in the rat proximal tubule.