A new operative method, encephalo-duro-arterio-synangiosis, for the surgical treatment of pediatric moyamoya disease has been developed. The rationale of the operation is to help promote the natural tendency of this disease to develop cerebrovascular collaterals. The method is to transplant a scalp artery with a strip of galea, leaving the distal as well as the proximal arteries intact, to a narrow linear dural opening made under an osteoplastic craniotomy. A representative case is described and the operative procedure is outlined. Our new method is compared with other surgical treatments of this disease.