A 68 year old man with prostatic carcinoma and extensive painful osteoblastic metastases was discovered to have hypocalcemia (serum calcium 7.1 mg/dl) without evidence of hypoalbuminemia, renal failure or malabsorption. Baseline studies revealed hypocalciuria (24 hour urine calcium less than 5 mg/day), normal serum phosphate (3.4 mg/dl), low tubular reabsorption of phosphate (68 percent), undetectable serum calcitonin, normal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, slightly elevated serum parathyroid hormone level and increased urinary cyclic AMP (8.87 mumol/g creatinine). These studies were compatible with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The intravenous administration of parathyroid extract produced no further change in urinary phosphate but a 25-fold increase in nephrogenous cyclic AMP. Three days administration of intramuscular parathyroid extract slowly and temporarily restored serum calcium to normal levels while increasing urinary cyclic AMP and phosphate. Chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil rendered the patient free of pain while reducing serum acid and alkaline phosphatase levels and restoring serum total and ionized calcium and urinary cyclic AMP excretion to normal.