The characteristics of the precentral neuron activity related to ipsilateral movements were studied while the monkey was performing finger, wrist and arm movements on either side. Out of 197 task-related neurons, 134 discharged in association with contralateral movements, but not with any one of 3 ipsilateral movements. Fifty neurons discharged with bilateral movements. Thirteen neurons discharged in association with ipsilateral movements (ipsi-neurons). Ten were recorded from the trunk or shoulder area of the motor cortex and were accompanied by contraction of those muscles by intracortical stimulation (ICS). The remaining 3 were related to elbow or wrist, but no ipsi-neurons were related to finger muscle contractions. In ipsilateral task performance, 7 ipsi-neurons discharged in association with finger and/or wrist movements in addition to arm movement. Five others were associated with arm movement. The last one discharged with wrist movement. Most of the units showed similar response to contralateral movement. Ipsi-neurons were classified into two groups. One group was recorded around the sulcus precentralis superior, had the lower threshold current and was mostly associated with finger, wrist and arm movements. The other was recorded in the rostral motor cortex, and had the higher threshold current and was related to arm movement. Among 185 neurons to which pyramidal tract stimulation was delivered, 2 out of the 80 PTNs and 11 out of the 105 non-PTNs were ipsi-neurons. EMGs were recorded from various muscles involved in the forelimb movements. Arm and finger muscles showed no activity when the monkey used the ipsilateral hand, while most of the shoulder and trunk muscles showed tonic or moderate transient changes in the activity during the ipsilateral tasks. The ipsi-neuron activity was discussed in consideration with EMGs.