The temporal relationship between apnea and gastroesophageal reflux was examined in 14 infants with abnormal GER scores and histories of prolonged apnea. Simultaneous polysomnographic and intraesophageal pH recordings were performed for each infant. GER episodes were compared to control segments of the recording (without GER) for frequency and type of apnea. Apnea was equally likely to occur during the control segments as during the GER episodes. Brief obstructive apneic episodes were more common during the onset of GER episodes than the onset of control segments. GER duration appeared prolonged during sleep. GER and apnea were not temporally related in the majority of instances, and may be two manifestations of a more general developmental delay.