Lasalocid or monensin inhibited most of the lactate-producing rumen bacteria (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Eubacterium cellulosolvens, E. ruminantium, Lachnospira multiparus, Lactobacillus ruminis, L. vitulinus, Ruminococcus albus, R. flavefaciens, Streptococcus bovis). Minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from .38 to 3.0 micrograms/ml. Among the lactate producers, those that produce succinate as a major end product (Bacteroides, Selenomonas, Succinimonas, Succinivibrio) were not inhibited by lasalocid or monensin. Also, none of the major lactate fermenters (Anaerovibrio, Megasphaera, Selenomonas) was inhibited by lasalocid or monensin. Veillonella alcalescens was inhibited by 24 micrograms/ml of lasalocid but was resistant to monensin. Hence, the reported increase in propionate in lasalocid- or monensin-fed cattle may result from selection for succinate producers and lactate fermenters. Lasalocid and monensin appeared to inhibit selectively the production of L(+), but not D(-) lactic acid. The inhibition of major lactate-producing bacteria (Streptococcus and Lactobacillus) suggests that lasalocid or monensin may be used to prevent lactic acidosis in ruminants.