Ketamine alone and combined with diazepam or xylazine in laboratory animals: a 10 year experience

Lab Anim. 1981 Apr;15(2):163-70. doi: 10.1258/002367781780959107.


Ketamine alone or supplemented by diazepam or xylazine has been used and evaluated as an anaesthetic in a range of animals including snakes, tortoises, lizards, birds, ferrets, dogs, cats, pigs, sheep, goats, non-human primates, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, mice and hamsters. Ketamine alone has severe limitations in most species, but in combination has proved valuable.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Anesthesia / veterinary*
  • Animals
  • Animals, Laboratory*
  • Birds
  • Diazepam*
  • Drug Combinations
  • Ketamine* / adverse effects
  • Mammals
  • Reptiles
  • Species Specificity
  • Thiazines*
  • Xylazine*


  • Drug Combinations
  • Thiazines
  • Xylazine
  • Ketamine
  • Diazepam