Three strains (2ac9, 3ac10 and 4ac11) of oval to rod-shaped, Gram negative, nonsporing sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from brackish water and marine mud samples with acetate as sole electron donor. All three strains grew in simple defined media supplemented with biotin and 4-aminobenzoic acid as growth factors. Acetate was the only electron donor utilized by strain 2ac9, while the other two strains used in addition ethanol and/or lactate. Sulfate served as electron acceptor and was reduced to H2S. Complete oxidation of acetate to CO2 was shown by stoichiometric measurements with strain 2ac9 in batch cultures using sulfate, sulfite or thiosulfate as electron acceptors. With sulfate an average growth yield of 4.8 g cell dry weight was obtained per mol of acetate oxidized; with sulfite or thiosulfate the growth yield on acetate was about twice as high. None of the strains contained desulfoviridin. In strain 2ac9 cytochromes of the b- and c-type were detected. Strain 2ac9 is described as type strain of the new species and genus, Desulfobacter postgatei.