Blocking action of Na channels by QX-314, a quaternary derivative of lidocaine, was studied in internally perfused and voltage-clamped axons of squid. In axons with intact Na inactivation, QX-314 exhibited both a frequency- and a voltage-dependent block of Na channels. Repetitive pulsing to more positive potentials enhanced the degree of block. Both frequency- and voltage-dependent blocks disappeared in axons in which Na inactivation had been destroyed by either pronase or N-bromoacetamide treatment. These results support the notion that Na inactivation not only modulates the frequency-dependent block but also involves the voltage-dependent binding reaction between QX-314 and Na channels.