Fouling biofilm development was monitored in a completely mixed tubular recycle reactor. A unique sampling system allowed direct (brightfield, epifluorescence, and scanning electron photomicroscopy) and indirect (increased fluid frictional resistance) observations of biofilms. Low fluid velocity (138.5 cm/s) experiments had shorter induction times and biofilm matrixes which included firmly adherent filamentous bacteria. High fluid velocity (265.4 cm/s) experiments had longer induction times with firmly adherent filamentous bacteria present only after the accumulation of extracellular materials. In both cases the fluid frictional resistance increased after filamentous bacteria became a permanent part of the biofilm.