The arrangement and ultrastructure of chloroplasts is described for the Chloromonadophycean algae gonyostomum semen Diesing and Vacuolaria virescens Cienkowsky. The chloroplasts are present in large numbers and are discoid structures approximately 3-4 micrometer in length by 2-3 micrometer in width. In Gonyostomum semen the chloroplasts form a single layer immediately interior to the cell membrane; frequently their longitudinal axis parallels the longitudinal axis of the cell. The chloroplasts in Vacuolaria virescens are more than I layer deep and do not appear to be preferentially oriented. In both organisms, chloroplast bands usually consist of 3 apposed thylakoids, although fusion and interconnections between adjacent bands frequently occur. External to the girdle band (the outermost thylakoids) is the chloroplast envelope. This is bounded by endoplasmic reticulum but there is no immediately apparent continuity between this endoplasmic reticulum and the nuclear envelope. Electron-dense spheres in the chloroplast stroma are thought to be lipid food reserve. Ring-shaped electron-translucent regions in the chloroplast contain chloroplast DNA. The DNA is distributed along this ring in an uneven fashion and, when stained, resembles a string of beads. Each plastid has I ring, and the ring is unbroken in the intact plastid.