Vomiting, lethargy and metabolic acidosis were the main initial symptoms of metabolic disease in a 1 month old girl. Her older sister had died from a similar disease, considered to be Reye's syndrome, at an age of 15 months. The urine of the present case contained 2-methylcitric acid, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, N-propionylglycine, 2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyric acid, N-tiglylglycine, 3-hydroxyvaleric acid and glutaric acid. These metabolites are all known to be associated with propionyl-CoA accumulation. Free propionic acid was not detected in the urine. In addition, the urine contained 3-oxo-2-methylvaleric acid and 3-hydroxy-2-methylvaleric acid, probably formed by condensation of two molecules of propionyl-CoA. The identity of these metabolites was confirmed by synthesis. An elevated urinary concentration of maleic acid and fumaric acid was another constant abnormality. The activity of propionyl-CoA carboxylase in leucocytes was about 20% of the normal activity. The girl was teated with a low-protein diet since the diagnosis was made at an age of 1 month, and her psychomotor development was satisfactory at an age of 2 1/2 years. She had a few episodes of acidosis during infections.