An association between cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity and intraventricular hemorrhage in very low birth weight infants was investigated retrospectively. Newborns were studied who weighed less than or equal to 1500 g at birth, who were less than or equal to 32 weeks gestational age and appropriate by weight, and admitted in the first 24 hours of life to our Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. Diagnosis of retinopathy of prematurity was made by retinal examination at approximately 4 weeks of age. Diagnosis of intraventricular hemorrhage was made by computerized tomography and clinical findings. A total of 138 infants were studied and divided into two groups: (A) birth weight less than or equal to 1000 g (31); (B) birth weight 1001--1500 g (107). There was a statistically significant association between cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity and intraventricular hemorrhage in both groups. There were no statistical differences between birth weight, gestational age, duration of oxygen therapy, highest oxygen concentration received, Apgar scores, incidence of hyaline membrane disease and patent ductus arteriosus between cicatricial retinopathy of prematurity and no retinopathy of prematurity patients in either group. This association may be an important consideration in the pathogenesis of both vascular diseases.