A revision of Molineinae parasitic in mammals is proposed with the following taxonomic changes: 1) Removal of the genera Ortleppstrongylus Durette-Desset, 1970, from a Bathyergidae of South Africa and Moguranema Yamaguti, 1941, from a Talpidae insectivore of Japan. Both genera are placed in Trichostrongylidae-Cooperiinae for the first, Trichostrongylidae-Haemonchinae for the second. 2) Division of the genus Molineus into two groups separated principally by the arrangement of the bursal rays. a) Molineus sensu stricto, parasitic in Carnivores throughout the world and in South american monkeys; with rays 2 and 3 grouped together and parallel, and with rays 4 equidistant between the 3 and 5. b) Brygoonema n. gen., Hugotnema, n. gen., Nochtia (Nochtia) Travassos and Vogelsang, 1929, and Nochtia (Tenrecola) n. sub. gen., parasitic in Tenrecoidea insectivores of Madagascar and Africa, and Erinacoidea insectivores and lemurs of Africa, with rays 2 and 3 diverging and the papilla of the ray 4 closer to the 3 than the 5. 3) Resurrection of the genus Shattuckius Sandground, 1938 parasitic in Solenodon of Hispaniola. 4) Synonymy of Hooperstrongylus Lie Kian Joe et Ow Yang, 1963 with Pithecostrongylus Lubimov, 1930. The species Molineus vogelianus De Muro, 1933 and M. teocchii Quentin, 1970, parasitic in lemurs are placed in Pithecostrongylus. Hypotheses on the evolution of the Molineinae of mammals are presented, based primarily on the evolution of the bursa. From the basic pattern observed in Molineinae of amphibians and reptiles (rays 2-3 grouped, ray 4 with common base with the 5-6, rays 5-6 grouped), evolution has followed two principal lines: 1) Displacement of the papilla of the ray 4 towards the anterior and disappearance of the common base with the 5-6. 2) Extremities of rays 2-3 and 5-6 converging forming two separate pincer-like formations. Following these and other secondary characters, an evolutionary hierarchy is proposed for the 13 genera. The parasites of Tenrecoidea of Madagascar are apparently of central importance in this evolution. A list of genera and species is given.