Ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were performed in 216 patients with known or suspected pancreatic disease. Both techniques provided accurate information in all groups of patients (normals and those with recurrent acute pancreatitis, chronic pancreatitis, and cancer), and there were no complications. Ultrasound scans gave more information concerning pseudocysts and were more often abnormal than pancreatograms in patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis. It is concluded that the combination of ultrasonography and ERCP constitutes a comprehensive diagnostic approach to patients with upper abdominal problems. The roles of other diagnostic tests for the pancreas, such as computed tomography, isotope scanning, function tests, and angiography, are also discussed briefly.