Axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS) form sprouts after injury. Elongation of regenerating axonal sprouts has been observed as the exception within the adult mammalian CNS but is the rule in the PNS of mammals as well as in the CNS of some fish and amphibians. The relative importance of intrinsic neuronal properties and axonal environment in determining the extent of axonal regrowth is unknown. Neuroglial cells, nerve growth factor and target tissues such as smooth muscle are known to influence neuronal responses to injury. Here we have examined the capacity of transected axons originating in the CNS to regrow into nerve grafts containing Schwann cells.