In three groups of patients, we investigated the hypothesis that body weight is not the factor underlying the relation between hyperuricemia and cardiovascular disease. Among 111 subjects with asymptomatic hyperuricemia followed for 108 months, atherosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) developed in six; their mean was 77.4 kg (172 pounds) compared with 79.7 kg (177 pounds) in the remainder; in 25 of the 111 patients hypertension developed; their mean weight was not significantly higher than that of the remainder. Among 156 patients with established gout followed for 133 months, clinical atherosclerosis developed in 25 after a mean of 95 months; their mean weight was 78.3 kg (174 pounds) contrasted with 79.7 kg (177 pounds) in those 81 of the remaining patients who had a weight recorded with 75 +/- 12 months after their initial attack of gout. Among 1,356 men aaged 60 to 69 years who had their serum uric acid recorded in 1967, subsequent deaths from cardiovascular disease showed a stepwise increase when deaths were arranged according to the serum uric acid levels but not when they were arranged according to body weight. Hyperuricemia thus predicts future cardiovascular disease independently of body weight.