Ten cases of painful ophthalmoplegia are reported. In all cases pain marked the onset of the disease; the condition was mostly unilateral. Recurrence and dramatic response to steroid therapy were more constant features than angiographic findings which may be completely normal. CAT permitted us to eliminate a tumor of the cavernous sinus in 7 cases, but in one case, which was operated, an aggravation followed surgery. Despite complete investigations of all patients, some questions remain unanswered. Is it an inflammatory or an allergic inflammatory process? (And the presence of antinuclear factor in an only case does not permit it to respond.) Why is the process confined to the superior orbital fissure? Mathew and Chandy tried to find a similarity between this syndrome and Bell's palsy although the 2 syndromes have not been shown to coexist. Is the Tolosa-Hunt syndrome comparable to the pseudotumor of the orbit? Although the dura mater is inserted on the border of the sphenoidal cleft, some patients may altern the 2 syndromes.