One hundred fourteen eyes of patients with retinal detachment occurring after congenital cataract surgery were studied. Retinal detachment was typified by high incidences of men, myopia, preference for the second and fourth decades of life, and a fairly long interval after cataract surgery. Frequently found were the following: (1) undetected retinal breaks, (2) high incidences of small oval or round holes in the upper nasal quadrant near the ora serrata, (3) retinal detachment in more than one quadrant, and (4) extensive vitreous and preretinal traction. Preoperative examination was often hampered by a small, bound-down pupil, nystagmus, extreme photophobia, and an inability to move the eye in desired directions. The major factor in the pathogenesis of retinal detachment after congenital cataract surgery appears to be chronic vitreoretinal traction in the anterior vitreous caused by cataract removal.