Repeated high doses (25 and 100 mg/kg) of methylamphetamine produce long-term depletions of both dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the rat brain. In the DA system, depletions are most pronounced in the neostriatum and substantia nigra, with decreased levels in these two regions being significantly correlated. Within the 5-HT system, levels are most reduced in the amygdala, frontal cortex and neostriatum. When both the DA and 5-HT depleting actions of methylamphetamine are considered, the hypothalamus stands out as one of the more resistant brain regions. The regional pattern of reduced 5-HT levels following methylamphetamine is similar to that seen after p-chloroamphetamine. After both methylamphetamine and p-chloroamphetamine, a loss of 5-HT synaptosomal uptake sites occurs. Serotonergic systems are more sensitive than DA systems to the apparent neurotoxic actions of methylamphetamine.