Information was collected on 301 cases of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome in the United States and Canada Examination of available medical records, death certificates and published case reports on these patients showed that they came from a wide geographic area and many diverse ethnic and racial groups. No significant difference was found in the incidence of cases born between 1947 and 1976; the overall rate was 4.0 per million live male births in the United States. Median survival has increased with time from eight months for patients born before 1935 to 6.5 years for those born after 1964. Seventy-six of the 301 patients (25%) were still alive at last follow-up and ranged in age from 1 to 36 years with a median of 10 years. Causes of death were primarily limited to infections or bleeding, but malignancy represented a significant problem. Twelve percent of the group (36 of 301) developed malignancy, the predominant types being lymphorecticular tumors (23 of 36) and leukemia (7 of 36). The overall relative risk for malignancy was found to be greater than 100 times that of the general population and was found to increase with increasing age.