Homologous Pairing in Genetic Recombination: recA Protein Makes Joint Molecules of Gapped Circular DNA and Closed Circular DNA

Cell. 1980 May;20(1):223-35. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(80)90250-0.


The recA protein, which is essential for genetic recombination in E. coli, promotes the homologous pairing of double-stranded DNA and linear single-stranded DNA, thereby forming a three-stranded joint molecule called a D loop. Single-stranded DNA stimulates recA protein to unwind double-stranded DNA. By a presumably related mechanism, recA protein promoted the homologous pairing of two circular double-stranded molecules when one of them has a gap in one strand. The two molecules were joined at homologous sites by noncovalent bonds. The covalently closed molecule remained intact and was not topologically linked to the intact circular strand of the gapped substrate. Electron microscopy showed that molecules were usually linked at two or more nearby points. The junctions in most molecules were shorter than 300 nucleotides. Sometimes the region between two extreme points was separated into two arms, producing an ellipsoidal loop (called an eye loop). The junctions in these biparental joint molecules were frequently remote from the site of the gap. We infer that a free end of the interrupted strand crosseover to form a structure like a D loop which moved away from the gap by branch migration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / physiology*
  • Carrier Proteins / physiology*
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • DNA, Circular / genetics*
  • DNA, Single-Stranded / genetics*
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Rec A Recombinases
  • Recombination, Genetic*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Carrier Proteins
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • DNA, Circular
  • DNA, Single-Stranded
  • Rec A Recombinases