Modern methods of clinico-psychological examination employed in 726 patients with heart diseases disclosed psychopathological changes in 18.7% of patients with congenital and in 82.1% of cases with acquired heart diseases. Oeration with extracorporeal circulation had no detrimental effect on the psychic development of children. Some psychic deviations were encountered in patients after correction of heart diseases, in particular, a cardioprosthetic psychopathological syndrome in patients with artificial heart valve prostheses. Patients who undergo operation for a heart disease require purposeful psychic rehabilitation. The methods and the main principles of such rehabilitation are described and its efficacy is demonstrated.