Impairment of retention of a brightness discrimination in rats was obtained when anisomycin (80 microgram bilaterally into both hippocampi) was injected 10 min before and 80 min after training or 240 and 360 min after training. No amnesia was observed when anisomycin was injected 45 and 165 min post training. The two separate sensitive periods for the amnesic effect of the inhibitor obviously correspond to the two phases of increased protein synthesis during the consolidation of the same learning procedure. The results support the previous findings of the two independent and qualitatively different macromolecular processes. They also argue for the inhibition of protein synthesis as an important mechanism in the amnesic effect of anisomycin.