Twenty-one patients had esotropia diagnosed before age 12 months. In all of these patients esotropia was eliminated, at least initially, by antiaccommodative therapy consisting of either full hypermetropic spectacles or miotics, or both. Clinical findings evaluated in these patients were comparable to similar clinical factors studied in a larger series of patients with accommodative esotropia, most with onset after 12 months of age. In approximately 50% of these patients early-onset accommodative esotropia deteriorated to a nonaccommodative esotropia that required surgery despite aggressive antiaccommodative therapy. All but one of the surgically treated patients continued to need hypermetropia spectacles postoperatively to maintain alignment.