Findings are described from 13 eyes in which post-cataract-extraction anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PCE-AION) developed immediately after an uncomplicated cataract extraction. During the early stages of the disease, the disc is edematous, with optic disc-related visual-field defects, but after about two months, the disc is pale. The almost invariable high rise of intraocular pressure during the immediate postoperative period plays a critical role in production of PCE-AION in eyes with vulnerable optic nerve head circulation. There is a high risk of development of PCE-AION in the second eye in patients with PCE-AION in the first eye, but this can be prevented by prophylactic measures. Post-cataract-extraction AION needs to be differentiated from ordinary AION seen in aphakic eyes months or years after the cataract extraction.