Renal hypertrophy in rats with streptozotocin diabetes or after unilateal nephrectomy was studied by sterological techniques. -- After 4 days of diabetes total glomerular volume had increased by 30%, and after 47 days by 43%. Glomerular growth was more pronounced than whole kidney growth during the first 4 days, but subsequently whole kidney growth exceeded glomerular growth. In control rats glomerular volume was 4.9% of total kidney volume; after 4 days of diabetes it was 5.4% and after 47 days 4.1%. -- Proximal tubule length increased from 366 m/kidney in control rats to 447 m/kidney after 47 days of diabetes; tubular luminal diameter increased from 26.8 micrometer to 31.4 micrometer in the same rats. Tubular length and luminal diameter were, however, not increased after 4 days of diabetes. -- In unilaterally nephrectomised rats there was no early rapid glomerular growth. Glomerular fractional volume was 4.9% in controls, 4.4% at four days, and 4.2% at 24 days after nephrectomy. -- The results indicate a disturbed glomerulo-tubular balance in the early phases of diabetic renal hypertrophy.