During a cytogenetic study of spontaneous abortions, successive abortions from 40 couples were karyotyped. The chromosome constitutions of the first and second abortions were found to be highly correlated. In each of 21 instances in which the first abortion was chromosomally normal, the subsequent abortion(s) was normal as well. In nine cases, the two abortions were chromosomally abnormal, and in four of these, both abortions were trisomic. Combined with findings from other studies of consecutive spontaneous abortions, the present data indicate that certain couples are at an increased risk for either repeated chromosomally normal abortions or for repeated trisomic conceptions. The increased risk of trisomy does not seem to be restricted to a particular chromosome, and the magnitude of the risk increase appears to be independent of maternal age.