Arginase was isolated from human liver and erythrocytes. The purification procedure used acetone precipitation, heat-treatment, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-cellulose chromatography and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200 in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol. Both enzymes migrated to the anode at pH8.3 on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. After incubation at pH8.0 and 37 degrees C the purified anionic liver arginase migrated to the cathode on polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. It is assumed that the multiple forms of the enzyme reported in the literature are partly artifacts of the purification procedure. The liver arginase showed a mol.wt. of 107000 determined by gel filtration and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.9S. Treatment of the liver enzyme with 0.25% sodium dodecyl sulphate at pH10 demonstrated an oligomeric structure of the enzyme with a mol.wt. of the subunit of 35000. The kinetic properties determined for the purified liver arginase showed an optimum pH of 9.3 and an optimal MnCl2 concentration of 2mM. The Km for L-arginine was 10.5 mM and for L-canavanine 50mM, and L-lysine exhibited a competitive type of inhibition with a Ki of 4.4mM. L-Homoarginine was not a substrate for liver arginase.