Fifty-nine cases of civilian traumatic injury of peripheral arteries were analyzed to determine the frequency, site and mode of accompanying nerve injury. Fifty-one percent of the patients sustained concomitant injury to one or more peripheral nerves. Nerve injury was more common with trauma in the arm (71 percent of cases) than in the leg (32 percent of cases). LOss of an extremity due to failure of vascular repair occurred in 10 percent of the patients. In contrast, 44 percent of patients had some permanent functional impairment of an extremity because of associated nerve injury. The importance of nerve injury in peripheral vascular trauma is discussed and recommendations for management are presented.