The varicocele syndrome: venography determining the optimal level for surgical management

J Urol. 1980 Dec;124(6):833-9. doi: 10.1016/s0022-5347(17)55688-8.


The results of a retrospective study of 67 patients with scrotal varicocele on the left side are presented. By means of preoperative venography of the renal, internal spermatic and common iliac veins 3 types of varicocele could be distinguished in which the cause arises in the internal spermatic vein and/or the varicocele is caused by obstruction of the common iliac vein. Use of routine preoperative venography is essential to establish the etiology of the varicocele and its proper management.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Iliac Vein / diagnostic imaging
  • Male
  • Radiography
  • Renal Veins / diagnostic imaging
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Spermatic Cord / blood supply
  • Varicocele / diagnostic imaging*
  • Varicocele / surgery