On the average, 0.6% of a dose of ketoprofen or naproxen or 1.2% of a dose of probenecid was found in the urine of normal male volunteers assayed immediately after its collection. Between approximately 60 and 85% of the dose of these drugs can be excreted in the urine as conjugates, which rapidly hydrolyze at body temperature, at room temperature, and even during frozen storage, thereby regenerating the parent drug. Since urine collections involved sample retention in the bladder at 37 degrees for collection intervals as long as 2--3 hr, the given percentages excreted unchanged probably are overestimates. It is possible that no unchanged ketoprofen, naproxen, or probenecid is excreted in urine. This study contrasts with previous reports of up to 50% of a dose of ketoprofen and 15--17% of doses of naproxen and probenecid being excreted in urine as the parent compound. Those reports probably reflect primarily the duration of frozen sample storage between collection and assay along with the urine collection schedules employed the speed of the clinical procedures, and the analytical procedures used. Attention should be given to potential conjugate hydrolysis whenever the pharmacokinetics of carboxylic acids are studied.