Continuous administration of 0.04% N-n-propyl-N-formylhydrazine (PFH) for life in drinking water to 6-week-old randomly bred Swiss mice induced tumours of the lungs, preputial glands, liver and gallbladder. The tumour incidences in these 4 tissues were 91, 22, 8 and 6%, whereas in the untreated controls they were 25, 0, 0.5 and 0.5%, respectively. The higher dose of 0.08% PFH, given under identical conditions, induced only tumours of the lungs, liver and gall bladder in low incidences, since the compound was too toxic for the mice. Histopathologically, the tumours were classified as adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the lungs, squamous-cell papillomas, and carcinomas and fibrosarcoma of preputial glands, benign hepatomas and liver-cell carcinoma, as well as adenomas and adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder. The investigation is part of our structure/activity relationship inquiry aimed at revealing the mechanism of action of the N-alkyl-N-formylhydrazine series of chemicals.