The A 3243 G mutation of the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu) gene was found to segregate with maternally inherited diabetes mellitus, sensorineural deafness, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or renal failure in a large pedigree of 35 affected members in four generations. Presenting symptoms almost consistently involved deafness and recurrent attacks of migraine-like headaches, but the clinical course of the disease varied within and across generations. The A 3243 G mutation has been previously reported in association with the mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode syndrome (MELAS) and with diabetes mellitus and deafness. To our knowledge, however, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is not a common feature in people with the A 3243 G mutation and renal failure has not been hitherto reported in association with this mutation. The present observation gives additional support to the variable clinical expression of mtDNA mutations in humans.