Mutations in codon 12 of K-RAS are frequently found in pancreatic adenocarcinomas. T-cell responses specific for individual RAS mutations can be elicited in vitro by stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with synthetic peptides. Mutant ras peptides are therefore a candidate vaccine for specific immunotherapy in pancreatic carcinoma patients. When vaccinated with a synthetic ras peptide representing the K-RAS mutation in their tumours, a transient ras-specific T-cell response was induced in two of five patients treated. The vaccination protocol involved multiple infusions of large amounts of peptide-pulsed antigen-presenting-cells obtained by leucapheresis. These results indicate that specific T-cell responses against mutations uniquely harboured in tumour cells can be induced in cancer patients by vaccination.