Conventionally, the genetics of species of the family Gramineae have been studied separately. Comparative mapping using DNA markers offers a method of combining the research efforts in each species. In this study, we developed consensus maps for members of the Triticeae tribe (Triticum aestivum, T. tauschii, and Hordeum spp.) and compared them to rice, maize and oat. The aneuploid stocks available in wheat are invaluable for comparative mapping because almost every DNA fragment can be allocated to a chromosome arm, thus preventing erroneous conclusions about probes that could not be mapped due to a lack of polymorphism between mapping parents. The orders of the markers detected by probes mapped in rice, maize and oat were conserved for 93, 92 and 94% of the length of Triticeae consensus maps, respectively. The chromosome segments duplicated within the maize genome by ancient polyploidization events were identified by homoeology of segments from two maize chromosomes to regions of one Triticeae chromosome. Homoeologous segments conserved across Triticeae species, rice, maize, and oat can be identified for each Triticeae chromosome. Putative orthologous loci for several simply inherited and quantitatively inherited traits in Gramineae species were identified.