Endocrine tumors of the small and large intestine

Pathol Res Pract. 1995 May;191(4):366-72. doi: 10.1016/S0344-0338(11)80890-3.


Among endocrine tumors arising in the intestinal tract, midgut argentaffin EC cell carcinoids, duodenal gastrin cell tumors and rectal trabecular L cell carcinoids, in order of decreasing frequency, are those better represented. Together they account for more than 80% of such tumors. Duodenal somatostatin cell tumors, gangliocytic paragangliomas and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas, are also well defined tumor entities. The carcinoid syndrome with intermittent flushing, hypotension and diarrhea, and the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome with severe peptic ulcer disease, are the only hyperfunctional syndromes consistently found in association with these tumors. The carcinoid syndrome arises in about 10% of intestinal carcinoids, usually in their advanced metastatic stage. The Zollinger-Ellison syndrome occurs in association with about 40% of gastrin cell tumors, including small intramural growths. Tumor prognosis depends on mode and site of presentation, histology, cell type(s), size, level of invasion, metastases (especially distant metastases) and associated clinical syndrome or background disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology*