Provocative agents in panic disorder

Therapie. 1995 Jul-Aug;50(4):301-6.


The pharmacological challenge strategy involves giving a provoking agent under controlled rules to clarify some aspect of behavioural or biological function. Various agents such as sodium lactate, carbon dioxide, caffeine, yohimbine, isoprenaline and now cholecystokinin have been used as provoking agents in healthy volunteers as well as in panic patients. Results obtained in this field are updated, with emphasis on the potential mechanisms of action. It is concluded that there may be a final pathway between carbon dioxide, sodium lactate, and cholecystokinin inducing panic attacks.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Caffeine / pharmacology
  • Carbon Dioxide / pharmacology
  • Central Nervous System Stimulants / pharmacology
  • Cholecystokinin / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Isoproterenol / pharmacology
  • Lactates / pharmacology
  • Lactic Acid
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / pharmacology
  • Panic Disorder / chemically induced*
  • Sympatholytics / pharmacology
  • Sympathomimetics / pharmacology
  • Yohimbine / pharmacology


  • Central Nervous System Stimulants
  • Lactates
  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Sympatholytics
  • Sympathomimetics
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Yohimbine
  • Lactic Acid
  • Caffeine
  • Cholecystokinin
  • Isoproterenol