Steroid hormone biosynthesis requires the concerted action of a related group of cytochrome P-450 steroid hydroxylases. In recent years considerable effort has been directed toward defining the molecular basis for the cell-selective expression of these genes and their transcriptional regulation by trophic hormones. The orphan nuclear receptor SF-1, acting through a conserved element found in the proximal promoter regions of all steroid hydroxylase genes, seems to be a major, but not exclusive, determinant of cell-selective gene expression. In contrast, the coordinate responses of the steroid hydroxylases to trophic hormones apparently involves an interplay of multiple proteins that collectively lead to a synchronous induction of gene expression. In some instances these interactions apparently involve transcription factors that also contribute to the cell-selective expression of these genes.