Morphological and GABA-immunoreactive Development of the Embryonic Chick Telencephalon

Int J Dev Neurosci. 1995 Aug;13(5):463-72. doi: 10.1016/0736-5748(95)00010-e.


The development of neurons utilizing gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic neurons) in prosencephalon and telencephalon from chicken embryonic days 4-14 (E4-E14) was studied by means of immunohistochemistry. Furthermore, routine histology and transmission electron microscopy. respectively, were performed in order to study the morphological development in the designated area. The main finding is that development of GABAergic neurons in the chick telencephalon is rapid; the GABA neurons are appearing in bulk at day 8, being "overexpressed" at days 10-11, decreasing in numbers thereafter and achieving mature morphology on day 14, which is considerably faster than in the rodent. Morphological analysis revealed that the prosencephalon mainly consisted of a thin layer of undifferentiated neuroblasts in the E4 embryo. By E6, the prosencephalon had increased in thickness and occasional cells outside the neuroepithelium showed a more mature morphology with a few cells weakly staining positive for GABA. At E8, the prospective granular and subventricular layers had developed. At E14, the appearance of the telencephalon is approximating that of the adult since both ependymal cells and morphologically mature neurons can be seen.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Differentiation / physiology
  • Chick Embryo
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Microscopy, Electron
  • Neurons / metabolism
  • Neurons / ultrastructure
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / metabolism
  • Telencephalon / cytology
  • Telencephalon / growth & development*
  • Telencephalon / metabolism*
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / metabolism*


  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • Phosphopyruvate Hydratase