Applying the transtheoretical model to a representative sample of smokers

Addict Behav. Mar-Apr 1995;20(2):189-203. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(94)00062-x.


Interrelationships among key constructs of the Transtheoretical Model are examined for the first time on a large (N = 4,144) representative sample of smokers. The posited relationships between the early Stages of Change (Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation) and the Processes of Change, Decisional Balance, and Situational Temptation are generally supported. Precontemplators are found to use the Processes of Change the least and those in Preparation use them the most. Precontemplators also have the least negative attitudes toward their smoking behavior. Precontemplators and Contemplators are tempted to smoke in more situations than those in Preparation. Precontemplators are also the most addicted to smoking, followed by those in Contemplation and Preparation, respectively, when examined on traditional measures of smoking behavior. The implications for smoking cessation efforts are also discussed.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase IV
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Attitude to Health
  • Decision Making*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation*
  • Rhode Island
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Smoking Prevention