Differences between responders and nonresponders to cocaine cues in the laboratory

Addict Behav. Mar-Apr 1995;20(2):215-24. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(94)00066-2.


Previous research has shown that a majority of drug-dependent subjects respond to drug cues in the laboratory with increased craving; however, approximately one-third are not cue responsive. The current study examined differences between responders and nonresponders to cocaine cues in a sample of 69 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Subjects completed questionnaires assessing selected dimensions of addiction and participated in a cue-reactivity protocol that assessed both cocaine craving and cocaine aversion in response to cues. Four groups of subjects were identified on the basis of their cue responses: (a) increased craving plus decreased aversion; (b) increasing craving only; (c) decreased aversion only; (d) no increase in craving and no decrease in aversion ("nonresponders"). No group differences were found in severity of cocaine dependence, depression, or on any demographic variable, with the exception of parental status. Group differences were found on measures of cocaine expectancies and self-efficacy. There is a discussion of the bearing of these findings upon explanations offered in the literature for nonreactivity to drug cues.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arousal / drug effects
  • Cocaine*
  • Cues*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Methadone / therapeutic use
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation*
  • Personality Inventory
  • Social Environment*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation


  • Cocaine
  • Methadone