Prospective correlates of exclusive or combined adolescent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco: a replication-extension

Addict Behav. 1995 Jul-Aug;20(4):517-24. doi: 10.1016/0306-4603(95)00004-v.


This one-year prospective study provides an extension of a previous cross-sectional investigation. The previous study found that the number of tobacco products used (i.e., smokeless tobacco, cigarettes), not type of tobacco product, was associated with higher scores on problem-prone variables. In the present study, a sample of 842 southern California seventh-grade adolescents who had not tried either cigarettes or smokeless tobacco were identified and surveyed one year later. Onset of tobacco use was examined as an outcome variable predicted by scores on four psychosocial and two alcohol use variables in seventh grade. Unlike the previous study, females were included in the current study, and the potential moderating effect of gender on the pattern of predictors was examined. Overall, these findings indicate that onset of cigarette smoking or use of both tobacco products is associated with alcohol use, risk taking, and low self-esteem. This study provides modest support for the previous investigation. In addition, two of the predictor variables were found to interact with gender. Risk-taking was found to have a stronger association with initiation of tobacco use for females than males. Susceptibility to social influence to use tobacco was found to be associated with initiation of tobacco use for males only.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Alcohol Drinking / epidemiology
  • California / epidemiology
  • Comorbidity
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Internal-External Control
  • Male
  • Plants, Toxic*
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk-Taking
  • Self Concept
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / psychology
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / epidemiology*
  • Tobacco Use Disorder / psychology
  • Tobacco, Smokeless*