Previous studies have demonstrated that the nocturnal oscillations of plasma renin activity (PRA) exactly reflect rapid eye movement (REM) non-REM (NREM) sleep alternation with levels of PRA that increase during NREM sleep and decrease during REM sleep. These studies were based exclusively on conventional scoring of sleep stages. In the present study, we used spectral analysis of the sleep EEG to determine the variations in the different EEG frequency bands, together with PRA profiles. Eight male volunteers participated in a 1 night study. They were subjected to 8 h polysomnography including spectral analysis of the EEG, and to blood sampling every 10 min. Delta relative power and Sleep Intensity Index and PRA oscillations ran parallel in all individuals. An increase in slow waves was associated with an increase in PRA, whereas a decrease was associated with a decrease in PRA. Cross-correlation coefficients were significant and ranged between 0.34 and 0.74. Conversely, theta, alpha and beta bands and the EEG mean frequency were inversely proportional to PRA, with lower cross-correlation coefficients. These results may give further support to the hypothesis of a common mechanism controlling both SWA and renin release from the kidney.