Postmenopausal women over the age of 50, who were either on estrogen replacement therapy (N = 21) or not (N = 33), were assessed on several sexually dimorphic cognitive functions. The two groups were strictly equivalent in age, education, and vocabulary score (an abbreviated measure of past intelligence). Overall, women on therapy had better scores than those not on therapy, regardless of whether the specific function favored men or women. Previous history of reproductive surgery had no effect on scores. Estrogen may guard against some of the intellectual decline which is to be expected postmenopausally.