Molecular structure of the Menkes disease gene (ATP7A)

Genomics. 1995 Aug 10;28(3):462-9. doi: 10.1006/geno.1995.1175.


We report a detailed molecular analysis of the genomic structure of the Menkes disease gene (MNK; ATP7A). There are 23 exons in ATP7A covering a genomic region of approximately 140 kb. The size of the individual coding exons varies between 77 and 726 bp, and introns vary in size between 196 bp and approximately 60 kb. All of the splice sites obey the consensus GT-AG rule except the splice donor of intron 9, which is GC instead of GT. The exon following this rare splice donor variant is alternatively spliced. A PGAM pseudogene and two highly polymorphic CA repeats map to introns within the gene. The structure is very similar to that of the closely related Wilson disease gene (WND; ATP7B). From exon 5 (exon 3 in ATP7B) to the end, all of the splice sites occur at exactly the same nucleotide positions as in the WND gene, except for the boundary between exons 17 and 18 (exons 15 and 16 in ATP7B) and a single codon difference at the boundary between exons 4 and 5 of the MNK gene (exons 2 and 3 in ATP7B). In contrast to the WND gene, in which the first four of six metal binding domains are contained in 1 exon, metal binding domains 1 to 4 are divided over 3 exons. The striking similarity of the MNK and WND genes at the genomic level is consistent with their relatively recent divergence from a common ancestral gene.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / genetics*
  • Base Sequence
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics*
  • Cation Transport Proteins*
  • Copper-Transporting ATPases
  • DNA / analysis
  • DNA Primers
  • Exons
  • Humans
  • Introns
  • Menkes Kinky Hair Syndrome / genetics*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phosphoglycerate Mutase / genetics
  • Pseudogenes
  • RNA Splicing
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins*
  • Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid
  • Restriction Mapping


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Cation Transport Proteins
  • DNA Primers
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • DNA
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases
  • Phosphoglycerate Mutase
  • ATP7A protein, human
  • Copper-Transporting ATPases

Associated data

  • GENBANK/U27360
  • GENBANK/U27361
  • GENBANK/U27362
  • GENBANK/U27363
  • GENBANK/U27364
  • GENBANK/U27365
  • GENBANK/U27366
  • GENBANK/U27367
  • GENBANK/U27368
  • GENBANK/U27369
  • GENBANK/U27370
  • GENBANK/U27371
  • GENBANK/U27372
  • GENBANK/U27373
  • GENBANK/U27374
  • GENBANK/U27375
  • GENBANK/U27376
  • GENBANK/U27377
  • GENBANK/U27378
  • GENBANK/U27379
  • GENBANK/U27380
  • GENBANK/U27381
  • GENBANK/U27382