Urinary calculi as a late complication of the Indiana continent urinary diversion: comparison with the Kock pouch procedure

J Urol. 1996 Jan;155(1):66-8.


Purpose: Although urinary calculi have been frequent late complications of the Kock continent urinary diversion, they have not been regarded as significant problems in patients with the Indiana pouch because of the lack of foreign material present. However, stones developed in a significant percentage of our patients with an Indiana pouch. We investigated the characteristics of stone formation in patients with the Indiana pouch and compared them to those with a Kock pouch.

Materials and methods: Detailed clinical courses regarding stone formation were reviewed in 72 patients with a Kock pouch and 54 with an Indiana pouch who had a minimum followup of 12 months.

Results: Stones developed in 7 of 54 patients (12.9%) with an Indiana pouch compared to 31 of 72 (43.1%) with a Kock pouch. The incidence gradually increased with longer followup but it was lower in the Indiana than in the Kock pouch group (5-year stone-free rate 84% versus 66%, respectively). Although the stones consisted principally of a mixture of struvite, carbonate apatite and ammonium hydrogen urate, variable amounts of calcium oxalate were identified in 50% of the Indiana pouch calculi.

Conclusions: Not only urinary infections but also metabolic factors were considered to be involved in stone formation within the Indiana pouch. However, the substantially higher rate of stone formation in our Kock and Indiana pouch groups than has been reported in the United States suggested that no or infrequent pouch irrigations in our patients were important risk factors for urinary calculi.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Disease-Free Survival
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Therapeutic Irrigation
  • Time Factors
  • Urinary Calculi / chemistry
  • Urinary Calculi / epidemiology
  • Urinary Calculi / etiology*
  • Urinary Calculi / therapy
  • Urinary Reservoirs, Continent / adverse effects*
  • Urinary Tract Infections / epidemiology