Radical prostatectomy is one treatment for organ-confined prostatic adenocarcinoma. Dissemination of malignant prostatic cells after radical prostatectomy could be partly due to prostate manipulation during dissection. We confirmed by assay of prostate-specific membrane antigen by reverse-transcription nested PCR that prostate manipulation seeded prostatic epithelial cells in the general circulation in 12 of 14 consecutive patients operated on for organ-confined prostate adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that surgeons should approach radical prostatectomy with care to avoid seeding from the prostate gland. Antiandrogen therapy might reduce the haematogenous spread of prostatic cells during radical prostatectomy.